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[杂项|Miscellany] 飞出个未来与数学教育:编剧对话选译(未完之1/3)

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发表于 2009-3-29 21:19:45 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 helie 于 2009-3-29 21:21 编辑

Klein’s
Beer:
Futurama 喜剧与学院派编剧

Sarah J. Greenwald

FUTURAMA 编剧的学生生涯

飞出个未来是电视节目中少有的异类——它是一部讽刺为主的科幻卡通,笑点高雅,但它充满智慧的幽默可不是无聊的冷笑话能比的。
Fox电视台播出的飞出个未来讲述了Fry的冒险——一次意外中掉入了低温室,并在千年后醒来,来到了3000年。
Fry和他的朋友们 Leela,漂亮的独眼变种人,还有 Bender, 一个爱使坏,喜欢喝老Fortran 800麦芽啤酒(Olde Fortran 800 Malt Liquor)的机器人, Fry的曾曾曾曾曾曾曾……曾外甥Professor Farnsworth, 一个年迈的科学家工作。他有一堆古怪的发明,并且拥有Planet Express快递公司。 他们的历程发生于广阔的宇宙……和破旧的沙发间。在科幻剧飞出个未来中,带科学背景的彩蛋出现的非常自然,但其深度 和数量却相当可观。
54 Greenwald


图1. Kleins 啤酒 [1, 3ACV12 (The Route of All Evil)]. Futurama™ . 2006
20世纪福克斯公司.版权所有。

图 2. 历史性根号66
66 [1, 3ACV02 (Parasites Lost)]. Futurama™ . 2006
20世纪福克斯公司.版权所有。
了不起. 他们真反映了编剧的才华和爱好: J. Stewart Burns拥有数学的学士和硕士学位; David X. Cohen有物理学士学位和计算机硕士学位;Ken Keeler有应用数学学士学位,电子工程硕士学位和应用数学博士学位; Bill Odenkirk有无机化学博士学位; Jeff Westbrook有物理和科学史的学士学位,还有理论计算机博士学位 [11]
学生对他们很感兴趣,经常问关于他们的问题. 得益于这种好奇心,学生在课堂上可以更容易了解到什么是数学和它的用途,还可以帮助他们探索数学在社会中的地位。 下面编者的几句话在数学导论课上非常实用。
Jeff Westbrook: 回顾起来非常有趣。他 [Ken Keeler] 和我实际上有过学术合作。我们一起写了这篇了论文。然后他好像说, “嗯,我从Letterman手上得到这份工作了。” 然后我就给他上课“慷慨激昂”的一课,跟他说(这么选择)对于一个有如此技能和技巧的人来说是多么错误的,社会学么需要数学家的贡献,他怎么可以放弃这一切去写电视剧。然后他说,“恩,我只是想试一试。”然后大约过了8年,他问我,“你想来飞出个未来剧组工作么?”“当然,我会去的。我一定去!”我想这是给我一个好机会,可以跳过同行的复查过程而直接讲我的研究放到大家都可以看到的电视上。于是我就学了一段小剧本并因此的到了这份工作。 [8]
学生很诧异为什么数学家能在卡通片里面居要职,因为他们通常不把幽默和数学家联系起来,通常也不认为数学家是有趣的人。彩蛋的幽默特性是他们在课堂上如此令人感兴趣的一个原因,并且学生对他们的来源很好奇。他们发现多得David X. Cohen我们才能看多飞出个未来中精彩的“数学时刻”。
David X. Cohen:在飞出个未来里我是主编 [见图 3],所以我能定下这个基调——Matt Groening 理论上是我的上级,还有 Fox ,但通常数学彩蛋通常更多是背景幽默而不是用来吸引人的关注。 几乎是我们想做的彩蛋都让我们侥幸做成了。因为我喜欢数学,所以在其中插个(数学的)小段子相当容易。[7]有关数学和喜剧写作之间的共同点向学生展示了评论,科学家和数学家都为数学奋斗着(??)。(Comments about the similarity between mathematics and comedy writing show students that scientists and mathematicians struggle with mathematics
56 Greenwald


图3. 主编 David X. Cohen

David X. Cohen:如果你在写剧本,特别是喜剧,(就会发现)没有一套公式可以让你写出下一个笑话——当然,你可能正用着(这样一个公司),那就另当别论了。但这不会成为一个好笑话——我想这就和你尝试证明什么东西一样:如果明显知道下一步要证什么的话,那么它就已经得证了(,还需要证么?)。所以,我觉得他们的的一个共同点就是,你的瞎子摸黑,可能证到一步就证不下去了,也可能写到一步就不搞笑了,但你就凭着自己的自信——自信才是你值得耕耘的沃土,也是乐趣的来源。 [7]
Jeff Westbrook:
我在研究计算机科学和数学问题时候最大的乐趣就是和一堆朋友坐在一块一边钻研一边扯淡。这有一种协同工作然后将问题轻松解决感觉。写作问题和前者十分相似。给你一个命题,你怎么将所谓素材融合在一起?对于写作来说,有很多分析层面的东西;就像在任何领域一样,分析能力十分重要。这对于数学尤为明显。没有其他任何东西能比数学更能锻炼你的分析技巧了。分析技能在很多地方都有用:写电视剧,写卡通,又或许写诉状之类的。 [8]

Ken Keeler: 很多人都已经对数学在电影和电视中扮演角色的方式刚到厌倦,像心灵捕手(Good Will Hunting)和数字追凶(NUMB3RS)。精确展现数学家和数学最大的障碍就是没有能够吸引普通观众兴趣的重大数学问题。对于我们这些数学家来说,问题本身就十分吸引人,让人着迷,但我就是不知道为什么如此难展现在荧幕上——对我说,这就是个迷。我花了很多时间思考这个问题,因为,通常人们这么对待数学故事:“这个故事可以通这样的改动变得更有趣:把主角变疯;或者让某个人死掉,如果他解不出这道题。”但这样剧情就显得 [12]

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发表于 2009-3-30 13:57:35 | 显示全部楼层
四大名著就西遊記 看的懵懂一些 其他都看不懂
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发表于 2009-3-31 21:01:30 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 魔索布莱城 于 2009-3-31 21:03 编辑

河狸乃放心吧,加油继续更新唷~ 我会把所有之前插楼的回复都删了的,特别是像沙发这种重量级脑残回复~
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发表于 2009-3-31 22:18:29 | 显示全部楼层
这个不错


嗯。
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 楼主| 发表于 2009-4-2 11:59:02 | 显示全部楼层
估计得清明回来才能弄完……清明假期得外出
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发表于 2009-4-2 18:04:26 | 显示全部楼层
en,好好去过个清明.  等你回来继续更新♡
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发表于 2009-4-2 22:49:27 | 显示全部楼层
恩。。。。。
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发表于 2009-4-12 01:34:05 | 显示全部楼层
居然掉到第二页了。。我帮你顶上来~~~
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发表于 2009-4-13 22:05:18 | 显示全部楼层
排版太乱,没看懂哦
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-12-5 20:21:39 | 显示全部楼层
飞出个未来中的数学
Text Transcript of Futurama Math talk at the Joint Mathematics Meetings in Phoenix, AZ,
Friday, January 9, 2004, 10:45-10:55am
Speaker: Sarah J. Greenwald
Thank you. My name is Sarah Greenwald and I'm a professor in the beautiful mountains of North Carolina. Futurama is a rare exception in broadcast tv - a satirical science fiction cartoon that aims its jokes squarely at the top of the brow, yet allows those brainy zingers to thrive among gags that fall further below.
感谢大家的到来。我是Sarah Greenwald,北卡州的一名教授。飞出个未来是电视节目中少有的异类——它是一部讽刺为主的科幻卡通,笑点高雅,但它充满智慧的幽默可不是无聊的冷笑话能比的。
Futurama, which aired on Fox, follows the exploits of Fry, who accidentally fell into a cryogenic chamber and awoke 1000 years later, in the year 3000.
Fox电视台播出的飞出个未来讲述了Fry的冒险——一次意外中掉入了低温室,并在千年后醒来,来到了3000年。
Futurama is especially fun to watch, because math, science or programming references seem to appear in almost every episode.
飞出个未来之所以格外的搞笑,是因为几乎在每一集里,都可以找到数学、自然科学或程序设计的背景。
For those of you who are familiar with my work on Simpsons math, you might begin to get the idea that I watch a lot of Fox tv. While this is true, the motivation for this talk today came from Art Benjamin, one of the incoming editors of Math Horizons. He had seen the Simpsons math article and approached me about writing additional pop culture articles. Since I was a casual viewer of Futurama, I contacted some expert fans for help. My co-authors are Tom Georgoulias, who has a degree in chemical engineering from NC State, and Marc Wichterich, who is working on his Diplom in cs at RWTH Aachen University, in Germany. While we are discussing degrees, I should mention that my PhD is from the University of Pennsylvania. Our Math Horizons Futurama article is expected to appear in April [This did appear in April 2004]. And if you're interested in writing a pop culture article for Horizons please do contact Art.
对于那些熟悉我另一部作品——《Simpsons中的数学》,你们可以已经可以了解到我看过很多Fox的电视节目。的确如此,而今天讲话的原因和Art Benjamin有关,Math Horizons(数学视野)的新编辑。他看过我的文章《Simpsons中的数学》,于是就联系我,约了另一部关于流行文化的文章。从那时候起我就成了飞出个未来的忠实观众,并和很多骨灰级粉丝交流心得。我的合著者包括有化学工程学位,来自北卡州的Tom Georgoulias,和在德国亚琛工业大学工业大学学习计算机科学的Marc Wichterich。说到学位,我顺带提一下我有宾夕法尼亚大学的博士学位。我们在《数学视野》上关于飞出个未来的文章将在四月发表(2004年4月)。如果你们有兴趣给《数学视野》写一篇关于流行文化的文章请务必和Art联系。
Some of the math references in Futurama go by very quickly, such as in the episode "Put your Head on my Shoulder" written by Ken Keeler. Fry's life is saved when his head is grafted onto soon to become ex-girlfriend Amy. In the background, a book labeled as P is sitting next to a book labeled as NP.
在飞出个未来中,有些提到数学的场景一闪而过,例如在Ken Keeler的“Put your Head on my Shoulder”中,Fry的头被嫁接在前女友Amy身上才得以保命。在背景中,一本标有P的书旁边有一本标有NP的书。
Cook and Levin formulated the P = NP problem independently in 1971. If P = NP, then every problem that can be checked with a nondeterministic algorithm can also be solved through one we can actually implement. Thus scientists have been looking for either a problem that is in NP but not in P or a proof that there is no such problem. A 1 million dollar prize has been offered to anyone who can prove whether or not P equals NP. If we had the books from Futurama that supposedly list the problems in each class, then we could compare them, see of the NP book lists any extra ones, and collect our prize money.
Cook和Levin在1971年各自独立的用公式表达出了P=NP这个问题。如果P=NP,那么每个可以通过非确定性的算法(nondeterministic algorithm)验证的问题都可以用其中一种可以实施的算法解决。因此科学家就一直在寻找这样一个问题,要么这个问题是在NP中而不在P中,要么这样的问题根本不存在。任何人能验证P是否等于NP这个问题,就可以得到一百万元的奖金。如果我们有飞出个未来里面的这本书,假设它把这些问题分类列出,通过对比,如果NP这本书中比另一本任意多一个,我们就可以去领奖金了。
Ken Keeler has a PhD in applied math from Harvard. His doctoral thesis was on Map Representations and Optimal Encoding for Image Segmentation. When he was finishing up there were very few jobs, so he applied to both academic and tv writing jobs. After a year at Bell labs, he decided to try tv writing. In a gotfuturama.com interview, Marc asked about his many years at school and Ken Keeler joked that a Futurama reference to 1729 was worth 6 years of grad school.
Ken Keeler有哈佛大学应用数学的博士学位。他的博士论文是地图表示与图像分割的最优算法。当他毕业的时候很难找工作,所以他同时申请了学术研究和编剧的工作。在贝尔实验室呆了一年后,他决定在编剧这一行试试水。在一次gotfuturama.com的采访中,Marc问到到他的多年求学生活时,Ken Keeler开玩笑说Futurama中提到1729这个花絮就得花六年在学校研究学习。

Keeler refers to the episode "Xmas Story" written by David Cohen in which robot friend Bender receives a card from the machine that built him wishing "Son #1729" a Merry Christmas.
Keeler指的是Xmas Story这一集。该集由David Cohen编写,讲述了Bender收到一张由制造他的机器寄出的圣诞卡,祝这个#1729号儿子圣诞快乐。
The number 1729 is sometimes referred to as the "Ramanujan-Hardy" number. One day Hardy took a cab to visit Ramanujan and commented that his taxicab number, 1729, was dull. Ramanujan quickly replied that 1729 was in fact a very interesting number since it is the smallest number that can be written as the sum of two cubes in two different ways, as 9^3 + 10^3 and 1^3 + 12^3.
1729这个数字有时又可以指“Ramanujan-Hardy”数字。一天,Hardy做出租车去拜访Ramanujan并提到1729这个平凡普通的车牌号码。Ramanujan立马反驳道1729实际上是一个很有趣的数字。这是一个可以用为两个数字立方和的表示的数字中最小的一个,分别可以写成两种形式,9^3+10^3和1^3+12^3。
The number 1729 also appears in many episodes of Futurama on the hull of the space ship called the Nimbus
数字1729也在很多集中飞船Nimbus号的外壳上出现过。
and as the reference number of the universe populated by "bobble head" characters in the episode "The Farnsworth Parabox."

(1729)也在“The Farnsworth Parabox”中也在大头娃娃居住的宇宙中作为背景出现过。
In an interview with Tom for frontwheeldrive.com, Executive Producer and head writer David Cohen said that they try to put in as much science as possible with the hope of making die-hard fans out of those that appreciate it. David Cohen has a bachelor's in physics from Harvard and a master's in computer science from Berkeley. He co-wrote a paper on the problem of sorting burnt pancakes, which appeared in discrete applications of math.
在来自frontweeldrive.com的Tom一次采访中,执行制作人和总编剧David Cohen谈到,他们尝试的加入尽可能多的科学元素,希望得到忠实影迷的赞赏。David Cohen有哈佛大学的物理学士学位和伯克利大学的计算机硕士学位。他曾与别人共同执笔过一篇应用离散数学方面的论文,关于区分烧焦薄饼的问题。

The sum of two cubes comes up again in the episode "a Lesser of Two Evils." You'll see this joke and then you'll hear first Matt Groening and then David Cohen talk about it.
If you were listening carefully, David Cohen actually gave a hint to help you with the calculations. I'll leave that as a challenge problem.
两立方数之和在“a Lesser of Two Evils”这一集中再次出现。你话看到这个小彩蛋,并先后听到Matt Groening和David Cohen谈到它。如果你听的仔细的话,David Cohen实际上已经给出的帮助你计算它的暗示。我会把它留给你们作为小挑战。
David Cohen also mentioned Jeff Westbrook, who received his PhD in computer science from Princeton. His doctoral thesis was on Algorithms and Data Structures for Dynamic Graphs. He was a professor at Yale and also worked at AT&T labs before writing for Futurama. He and Ken Keeler also published an article in discrete applications.
David Cohen也提到有普林斯顿大学计算机博士学位的Jeff Westbrook。他的博士论文是动态图表的算法和数据结构。在创作futurama之前,他是耶鲁大学的教授,同时也在AT&T实验室工作。他和Ken Keeler曾共同发表过一篇应用离散数学的文章。
There is another mathematician on staff. Steward Burns has a bachelor's in math from Harvard. His senior thesis was on the structure of group algebras and he has a master's in math from Berkeley.
此外,剧组中还有一个数学家。Steward Burns,有哈佛大学的数学学士学位。他的他的毕业论文是关于集合代数的结构。他还有伯克利大学的数学硕士学位。
In this episode written by Burns, Fry is confronted with the fact that even though he briefly attended college in the 20th century, this is only the equivalent of being a high school dropout by 30th century academic standards. In the hopes of becoming a Mars University dropout, he begins enrolling in some courses.
在有Burns执笔的一集里面,Fry不得不接受这个事实:尽管上短暂地上过20世纪的大学,但在30世纪的学术标准来说,仅相当于高中辍学生。在怀着成为火星大学的辍学生的希望下,他报名参加了一些课程。
Later on Professor Farnsworth is seen teaching to an empty room as Fry arrives late to class.
后来Farnsowrth教授在一间空教室里讲课,而Fry姗姗来迟。
Supersymmetric string theory is a branch of mathematical physics but the duper is listed for comic effect. Ed Witten is famous for his discoveries in mathematics using observations from physics. He even won mathematics highest award, the Fields medal. The diagram of the dog is similar to a string scattering diagram, a string theory analogue of a Feynman diagram, representing particles combining or decaying. However, instead of the dog-shaped diagram in the picture, string theorists typically look at diagrams that resemble a pair of pants, or two pairs of pants sewn together at the waist. "Witten's Dog" is a parady of "Schroedinger's Cat," a famous paradox in quantum physics.
超对称弦论是数学物理的分支,但恶搞者把他列为漫画搞笑的。Ed Witten以用物理观测发现数学理论而著名。他还获得了数学界最高奖项,菲尔兹奖。这只像狗一样的图表类似弦的散图,一种类似Feynman图的弦论。代表粒子结合或消亡。然而,不像图中狗一样形状的图表,弦论通常看起来像是一条裤子,或者两条从腰际缝起来的裤子。“Witten的狗”类似“Schroedinger的猫,”一个著名的量子物理学悖论。
Fry is clearly in over his head and is certainly on his way to achieving his goal of becoming a college dropout.
Fry显然听得头大了,不过正好合他意——当一名大学辍学生。
Here's an amusing reference to Escher's 1953 Relativity when Fry and Bender look for an apartment.
当Fry和Bender在找公寓的时候,有一个与Escher's 1953 Relativity有关的有趣彩蛋。
Thanks to the cleverness and mathematical backgrounds of these writers, Futurama can be especially fun to watch. And David Cohen was correct in my case. Researching math in Futurama did make a die-hard fan out of me.
正因为这些才华横溢具有数学背景的剧组人员,Futurama才变得格外有趣。而且David Cohen的远见正合我胃口——在Futurama中寻找数学让我成为了他的死忠影迷。
But, if you think the fun is over and we've revealed all the clever jokes Futurama has, think again. It is left as an exercise for you to tune into the show and find others. Sadly, Fox has decided not to order any new episodes. This leaves fans with the option of enjoying the show through the DVD boxed sets or watching re-runs on the Cartoon Network Monday through Thursday at 11pm or 2am. Those viewers who do take the time to tune in will find their brains and funny bones richly rewarded.
但,如果你认为我们已经解释了Futurama的所有巧妙的笑点,它的乐趣就到此为止了,你可要三思了。这仅仅是一个热身练习而已,让你迷上这部剧集,并在后续作品中继续寻找。很不幸的是,Fox决定砍掉这部剧。影迷们只能通过DVD版和Cartoon Network星期一到四11pm到2am的重播来享受这部作品。那些舍得花时间看这部剧的人会发现他们的大脑和喜感神经受益匪浅。
Thank you.
谢谢
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